Experts projected that by 2015, drug resistance infections could kill over ten million people annually across the world.
With the discovery of antibiotics such as Penicillin in London by Alexander in 1928, the medical industry got a sigh of relief with millions of lives being saved,. Modern health care is now dependent on the use of antibiotics for cancer treatment, surgery and to prevent ordinary infections from becoming complicated.
What are antibiotics?
Antibiotics, also known as anti-bacterial, are types of medications that help to kill or slow the growth of bacteria. The increasing misuse and over use has generated worries, following concerns over antibiotic resistance.
What is antibiotic resistance?
The resistance to antibiotics is a natural phenomenon cause by genetic mutation. Antibiotic resistance simply refers to the resistance to antibiotics by common bacteria that cause infections.
Antibiotic resistance could mean that some diseases such as gonorrhoea may become untreatable. According to WHO, there have been reported failures in last resort treatment for gonorrhea (third-generation cephalosporins) from 10 countries. This is due to resistance to treatments
In Europe, 25,000 to 30,000 people die annually due to antibiotic resistance and unless there is an intervention, this is expected to increase over the years According to WHO, antibiotic resistance is an increasingly serious threat to global public health that requires action across all government sectors and society.
1 in 3 persons carry infections that can kill..
In 2013, multi drug resistance tuberculosis infected an estimated 480,000 people worldwide.
Facts you should know about antibiotic resistanPatients with infections caused by drug-resistant bacteria are generally at increased risk of worse clinical outcomes and death, and consume more health-care resources than patients infected with the same bacteria that are not resistant” WHO.
- There were reports of a gradual increase in resistance to HIV drugs in 2012. There were also reports of further increases in resistance to first-line treatment drugs and this might cause the need for more expensive drugs in the near future.
- About 480, 000 new cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) were recorded in 2013, yet MDR-TB requires treatment courses that are much longer and less effective than those for non-resistant TB
In 100 countries, there are records of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB).
- Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) is known for been the best available treatment for falciparum malaria, yet cases of resistance have been recorded in parts of the Greater Mekong subregion,
- There are high proportions of antibiotic resistance in bacteria that cause common infections (e.g. urinary tract infections, pneumonia, bloodstream infections) in all regions of the world.
- A high percentage of hospital-acquired infections are caused by highly resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria.
Some of the cause’s antibiotic resistance
Misuse and overuse of antibiotic drugs
People use them when they don’t need them or they don’t use them according to their doctor’s prescription.
People travelling from one part of the world to the other may carry and transmit resistant bacteria.
An estimated 63,000 tons of antibiotics is fed to farm animals yearly across the globe
2. The use of antibiotics in farming is also a major concern; an estimated 63,000 tons of antibiotics is fed to farm animals yearly across the globe
Antibiotics are used to raise animals and make them bigger in order to meet global demand for cheap meat. Almost 45% of all antibiotics used in the UK are on farming. Antibiotics are not only used to treat animals as reaction to clinical needs, it’s also used before operations like a cesarean.
Some of these antibiotics used on animals are also used in human medicine and the over use in animals can make animals develop resistance to antibiotics. Consequently, these bacteria’s can now be transferred to humans via the consumption of contaminated meat or crops.
Lack of effective mechanisms to regulate antibiotic drug use in Nigeria and other parts of the world is also a major challenge. People purchase antibiotic drugs at will.
Absence of good diagnostic test to determine if the case is an issue of
Avoid indiscriminate use of antibiotics.
Stick to your doctor’s prescription
Avoid self medication
Do not patronize cheap meat.
The next Challenge: Antibiotic resistance could be a major challenge to deal with in the next decade. Pharmacists, physicians, Farmers and regulatory bodies must rise up to their responsibilities.